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微生物燃料电池与电解池技术在环境与能源领域的应用研究
蒋海明
学位类型博士 ; 博士
导师郭荣波
2012-05
学位授予单位中国科学院研究生院
学位授予地点北京
学位专业化学工程
关键词微生物燃料电池 微生物电解池 生化需氧量传感器 废水处理 微藻
其他摘要微生物燃料电池(Microbial Fuel CellMFC)是一个以微生物作为催化剂氧化有机物并产生电流的装置,其在产电、生化需氧量(Biochemical Oxygen DemandBOD)生物传感器、废水处理、产氢及野外电源等方面具有广泛的应用前景。本论文主要对MFC与电解池(Microbial Electrolysis CellMEC)技术在BOD生物传感器及废水处理领域的应用进行了研究。具体内容包括以下几个方面:1. 基于MFC技术构建了BOD生物传感器,以葡萄糖-谷氨酸溶液为模拟废水,考察了阴极溶液流量、阳极溶液流量及BOD浓度对传感器性能的影响,并对传感器的性能进行了评估。结果表明:(1)当阴极溶液流量大于5 mL/min时,阴极溶液流量变化对稳态电压影响不显著。(2)当BOD浓度大于200 mg/L时,阳极溶液流量变化对传感器稳态电压影响不大,但当BOD浓度小于100 mg/L时,传感器稳态电压随阳极溶液流量增加而显著增大。(3)保持阳极溶液流量为0.6 mL/min、阴极溶液流量为5 mL/min,传感器的稳态电压与BOD浓度在10~200 mg/L范围内符合Monod方程。(4)传感器的稳态电压和传感器电压的初始变化速率与BOD浓度呈现良好的相关性。传感器的稳态电压与BOD浓度在10~50 mg/L范围内成线性关系,而传感器电压的初始变化速率与BOD浓度在50~200 mg/L范围成线性关系。(5)以传感器电压的初始变化速率为指标,测量时间缩短了60%,而线性范围浓度的上限拓展了3~7倍。2. 基于MEC技术构建了BOD生物传感器,以葡萄糖-谷氨酸溶液为模拟废水,考察了外加电压、质子交换膜及BOD浓度对传感器的响应信号及测定时间的影响,并对传感器的性能进行了评估。结果表明:(1)外加电压对传感器的响应信号及测量时间具有显著影响。当外加电压由0.3 V 增至0.9 V时,传感器的最大电流增加了约4.6倍,库仑量增加了约40%,而测量时间则缩短了64%。(2)在MECBOD生物传感器中,质子交换膜的去除后降低了传感器的稳定性,因此质子交换膜是必不可少的。(3)保持外加电压为0.7 V,最大电流与BOD浓度在10~400 mg/L范围内符合Monod方程。(4)当外加电压为0.7 V时,传感器产生的最大电流和库仑量与BOD浓度都显示良好的相关性。传感器的最大电流和BOD浓度在10~100 mg/L范围内呈线性关系。传感器的库仑量与BOD浓度在10~400 mg/L范围内具有良好的线性关系。(5)传感器的重复性(±SD<±6%)和稳定性(±SD<±7%)非常好,且测量时间短(<10 min)。3. 为克服MFC单一系统处理废水及微藻单一系统处理废水时的局限性,提高污水处理效果,将MFC技术与微藻培养技术相结合,分别构建了单室MFC与微藻培养联合分步处理生活污水系统、-阴极连续流双筒型MFC与光生物反应器耦合系统连续处理生活污水及阳-阴极连续流上流型无膜MFC与光生物反应器耦合系统连续处理生活污水,并系统研究了它们对生活污水的处理效果。结果表明:MFC与微藻培养耦合系统相对MFC单一系统而言提高了氮和磷的去除率,具有更好的污水处理效果。污水中的总磷和NH4+-N经耦合系统处理后,达到了国家污染物排放标准(GB18918-2002)中规定的一级排放标准(A类)。; Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a device that uses microbe as catalysts to oxidize organic matters and generates current. The prospect for its application involves in electricity production, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), wastewater treatment, bioremediation, hydrogen production, and field power. This thesis mainly focused on the applications of MFC and microbial electrlysis cell (MEC) in BOD biosensor and domestic wastewater treatment. The main contents of the thesis specifically included the following aspects:1. A BOD biosensor was developed based on MFC, and the factors (including cathode solution flow, anode solution flow, and BOD concentration) that affecting the performance of the biosensor, as well as the performance of the biosensor, was investigated using glucose and glutamic acid artificial wastewater as check solution. The results showed that: (ⅰ) No notable effect on biosensor’s steady-state voltage (response signal) was observed when cathode solution flow was above 5.0 mL/min. () Biosensor’s steady-state voltage was significantly affected by anode solution flow, and it increased with the increase of anode solution flow when cathode solution flow was kept at 5.0 mL/min and BOD concentration was below 100 mg/L. No notable effect of anode solution flow on biosensor’s steady-state voltage, however, was observed when BOD concentration was above 200 mg/L. (ⅲ) Biosensor’s steady-state voltage appeared to follow Monod equation as a function of BOD concentration in the range of 10~200 mg/L when anode solution flow and cathode solution flow were kept at 0.6 mL/min and 5.0 mL/min, respectively. (ⅳ) Both the biosensor’s steady-state voltage and initial rate of biosensor’s voltage increment showed good relationship with BOD concentration. When anode solution flow and cathode solution flow were kept at 0.6 mL/min and 5.0 mL/min, biosensor’s steady-state voltage was liner with BOD concentration in the range of 10~50 mg/L (correlation coefficient r2 = 1), and the initial rate of biosensor’s voltage increment was linear with BOD concentration from 50 up to 200 mg/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. (ⅴ) The measurement time was reduced by 60% and the upper limit of the linear range was expanded 3~7 times when the initial rate of biosensor’s voltage increment was used as the indicator.2. A BOD biosensor was developed based on MEC, and the factors (including applied voltage, proton exchange membrane (PEM), and BOD concentration) that affecting the performance of the biosensor, as well as the characteristics of the biosensor, was investigated using glucose and glutamic acid artificial wastewater as check solution. The results showed that: (ⅰ) Biosensor’s response signal (maximum current or coulomb yield) and measurement time were significantly affected by applied voltage when BOD concentration was kept at 200 mg/L. The increase of applied voltage (from 0.3 V to 0.9 V) resulted in an increase of biosensor’s maximum current by about 4.6 times and biosensor’s coulomb yield by 40%, respectively. In addition, biosensor’s measurement time was reduced by 64%. () In a MEC-type BOD biosensor system, the removal of PEM led to a decrease of the sensor’s stability, and therefore the PEM was essential. (ⅲ) Biosensor’s maximum current appeared to follow Monod equation as a function of BOD concentration in the range of 10~400 mg/L when applied voltage was kept at 0.7 V. (ⅳ) The maximum current and coulomb yield generated by biosensor showed good correlation with BOD concentration when applied voltage was kept at 0.7 V, respectively. The correlation between maximum current and BOD concentration showed a good linearity in the range of 10 to 100 mg/L with regression coefficient r2 = 0.990. Moreover, the coulomb yield increased linearly with BOD concentration between 10~400 mg/L with regression coefficient r2 = 0.999. (ⅴ) The biosensor showed good reproducibility (±SD < ±6%) and stability (±SD < ±7%) and had a short measurement time (<10 min) (in form of maximum current). 3. In order to overcome both the limitations of MFC and microalgae for wastewater treatment and improve wastewater treatment effect, three coupled systems, that including a single-chamber MFC and microalgae cultivation coupled system, a sequential anode-cathode configuration two-cylinder MFC and a photobioreactor coupled system, and a sequential anode-cathode configuration upflow membrane-less MFC and a photobioreactor coupled system, were developed by the combination of MFC technology and microalgae technology. In addition, the applications of the three systems for wastewater treatment were systematically investigated. The results showed that: (ⅰ) The combination of MFC and microalgae cultivation achieved better wastewater treatment with improved TP and NH4+-N removal than MFC alone. () The concentration of TP and NH4+-N in wastewater, after treated by all the coupled systems, met the first level criteria (Class A) specified in discharge standard of pollutants for municipal wastewater treatment plant of China (GB18918-2002).
作者部门生物制氢与沼气团队
学科领域生物制氢与沼气
公开日期2012-06-08
学位类型博士 ; 博士
语种中文
文献类型学位论文
条目标识符http://ir.qibebt.ac.cn/handle/337004/986
专题工业生物燃气团队
推荐引用方式
GB/T 7714
蒋海明. 微生物燃料电池与电解池技术在环境与能源领域的应用研究[D]. 北京. 中国科学院研究生院,2012.
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